1.2. Our new theory of relativity

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The explanation of light as the electromagnetic waves phenomenon was one of major triumphs of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory.

But the waves in what?

In Michelson-Morley’s experiment it was the result the decision of "death" for the theory of calm ether sea, which all mass moves through.

That is why I propose a new definition of medium, where the light (wave, intensity) is propagated.

1.2.1. New definition of medium, in which the light (wave, intensity) is propagated

"All mass (standstill and moving) including vacuum, consists of elementary particles, via which the light (wave or intensity) is propagated by Huygens principle. This principle states that each point of wave front (electromagnetic wave front) can be considered as a source of secondary wavelets (small intensities) propagated in all directions. Each source of secondary wavelets (small intensities) i. e. each particle of medium moves at the speed of the medium. In other words, the drag coefficient equals one (the complete drag).

At any moment the wave front (intensity front) is the envelope of these wavelets (electromagnetic wavelets)."

The medium is composed of elementary particles oscillating around their equilibrial positions. It is completely entrained as a whole, e. g. by Earth gravitation field (considering the Earth, the equilibrial positions of their elementary particles are at rest).

The medium oscillated around the equilibrial positions of its particles in microspaces due to the spread of wave motion.

But as a whole, it does not move, while just local medium (elementary particles) are in micromotion around their equilibrial positions (which are at rest considering the Earth, however, because the it rotates and circles around the Sun, the equilibrial positions are also in motion considering fixed stars or the Sun respectively). An absolute vacuum, i. e. zero pressure, does not really exist. It is only a certain, nearly an ideal term, impossible to achieve in any laboratory. Not to state that „one of the great "triumphs" of relativity is that the medium was declared superfluous - not needed in all coordinate systems" - this is one of the biggest defects of theory of relativity, frequently criticized today. The difference between the medium and ether is substantial. While the ether was defined as penetrating through the entire matter, at the same time it was firmly connected with the absolute stationary space and torn off by environment with a different tearing coefficient = drag coefficient . The medium is an environment, in which wave motion is spread. If we would endeavor to compare "tearing coefficient" of medium and the ether respectively, always for the medium . It is necessary to realize that there is a large number of media in the Universe, mutually moving, while the "jump" of wave motion from one moving medium to another one is ensured by Huygens principle (see 1.2.3).

Ground spheres of air as well as media are completely entrained by Earth’s gravitational field. Considering the Earth, it is difficult to speak about a relative motion of medium regarding the Earth ("ether wind").

The stellar aberration is also composed of other media besides the ground level of the atmosphere (medium immediately around the star-the source of light, media between the star and the Earth, media around the Earth and higher levels of the atmosphere). It is not possible to say that it is one medium in these experiments (Michelson’s experiment and stellar aberration), and put them in contradiction.

The author has a medium, no ether. The author has a theory of a non-linear form of the interference field - Beckmann [11] has not this theory.

With own theory of medium and of non-linear form of the interference field, we can explain Fizeau’s experiment, stellar aberration and Michelson-Morley experiment, at the same time.

1.2.2. Our generalized law of inertia

Let’s have a real coordinates system firmly connected with a real laboratory on Earth, where all experiments testing the physical theories are performed. We know that this coordinates system moves around the Earth axis during an astronomical day i. e. it performs a quasi-circular motion. During the year it rotates around the Sun approximately in a quasi-circle together with the Earth. During 2.108 years it circulates in the quasi-circle around the center of the Galaxy. It performs a quasi-uniform motion in a quasi-circle together with the Sun. The Galaxy performs a quasi-uniform and quasi-circle motion around the center within the framework of metagalaxies of star clusters and our laboratory coordinates system on Earth together with it, etc. From the experimental testing of the law of inertia it is known that the body moves along the "plane" stated by a waterlevel, i. e. in fact it is not a straight-line uniform motion, but it is the motion in the circle of the Earth radius of R=6378 km. The space aeronautics show that space ships, Earth satellites and orbital laboratories move quasi-uniformly in almost a circle around the Earth.

The atomic theory shows that the electrons and the nucleus circulate around the center of gravity of atom in approximate circles. The body rotating around its own axis (a flywheel) persists in this status. Similarly, the planets, stars, galaxies, molecules, nuclei and elementary particles rotate around their own axes. Since the uniform straight-line inertial motion cannot be achieved in a microworld, its place here is exclusively in the inertial quasi-circle motion. It is analogous in the macroworld. Each real "straight-line" motion can be replaced by a circle of a huge radius. This discussion results in the following: "Every mass (atom, molecule, particle, body, vacuum) persists in the status of the quasi-rest or quasi-uniform motion in a quasi-circle as far as it the external forces do not force it to change its status. (This notion is called the generalized law of inertia)." The inertial rotation of body consists of a quasi-uniform motion (in the quasi circles) of body’s atoms. The inertial rotation of particle consists of a quasi-uniform motion (in the quasi-circles of subparticles - quarks, prequarks.

Finally, it is necessary to stress, that since the idea of inertial straight-line uniform motion has no place in physics, neither the idea of the inertial system (in our theory it is replaced by the notion of equivalent system-see 1.2.4.) nor the notions of Einstein’s principle of relativity, local time, co-variant equations, nor Lorent’z transformation equations physical definition of simultaneity, nor invariant interval has any place in physics.

No real motion can be straight-line one. Every motion drawing near the straight-line one is just a part of curvilinear circular motion with final radius. It will never reach the radius .

We have already known that straight-line motion does not really exist, it is only possible a hypothetical approximation for large radii of curvature. On surface of Earth, the circle with radius is a "straight line" (in light of the origin of this term at Newton - laboratory desk - a plane defined by the level).

These radii of curvature are even larger for galaxies - they have the size of several light years - and they are more similar to the straight line, which they will never reach. In reality we have not uniform motion in a circle, but a non-uniform in ellipse (quasi-uniform motion in a quasi-circle) or rosette respectively-see Consequences 2, point 20.

Centripetal acceleration forces in the author’s theory are not constant - they change: alternatively it is growing and declining. In a "circle" can be uniform or a non-uniform motion.

The non-uniform motion has a sequel: a little deformed circle on ellipse or rosette respectively and creation of stationary cloud.

Centripetal acceleration is not the acceleration in direction of the curve of the circle (tangential one), but in direction perpendicular to this curve, it has nothing in common with the acceleration in direction of curve. It determines the size of curvature of circle line only, and in the extreme case, the size of the straight line (for ). However, it is not possible to realize these extreme positions in reality. For any "straight-line" motion it is valid that . On the surface of the Earth, on an ideal plane determined by the water level, normal acceleration on the "straight line", that lies in this plane, equals

The standard Newtonian physics is somewhat corrected by Generalized Law of Inertia.

1.2.3. Our law of propagation of light (wave, intensity)

"The light (wave, intensity) is propagated in the medium in which the light is propagated (see 1.2.1.).

Thus the points of the boundary between the standstill and moving medium are the sources of secondary wave (intensity) motion. The speed of light (waves, intensity) in the medium in which the light (wave, intensity) is propagated is the same in all directions.

1.2.4. New definition of equivalent system of coordinates as the coordinates system in which it is valid:

a) our generalized law of inertia ...1.2.2.

b) our law of propagation of light (wave, intensity) ...1.2.3.

1.2.5. Our principle of relativity:

"The laws of physics are equivalent in all equivalent coordinates systems, or what is an equivalent affirmation respectively: the results of each physical experiment is the same, if it is performed in identical initial conditions in any equivalent system."

1.2.6. Radiation of intensity (waves, light, energy)

A mass (body, atom, molecule, particle, charge) persisting in absolute standstill or in an ideal uniform motion in an ideal circle does not radiate neither energy, wave, intensity, nor light with regard to the medium (in real physics the ideal state is a mere approximation). Alternation of very small deviations from this ideal state i. e. quasi-standstill or quasi- uniform motion in a quasi-circle - alternative slightly accelerated a motion and a slightly decelerated one is the only source of wave motion (intensity, light, energy).

Likewise the mass is the characteristic property of the matter, pulsating motion is another characteristic property of the matter (body, atom, molecule, particle, charge).

The matter is a material object (body, particle, photon, charge, vacuum, etc.)

The mass is defined by the action of force of mutual action of the force (gravity) between two material objects.

1.2.7. Some Remarks Concerning the Experiments Related to the Origin of the Special Theory of Relativity

With Michelson’s, Fizeau’s, and Harre’s experiments, the medium of the wave emittance fully dragging with drag coefficient , however, Fizeau’s and Harre’s experiments should be explained by non-linear form of interference field. With star aberration it is the case of classical condition in which the tangents of the inclination angle of looking glass axis equals v/c. Transversal Doppler’s effect will be discussed as a special case of Doppler’s effect.
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